BY CHAYO BRIGGS
ABOUT THE AUTHOR Chayo Briggs, popularly known as Dr. Credit King assists you to improve your credit record. His services range from removing negative items off your credit report, and advise on tax real estate investing, bankruptcies, judgements, collections, charge-offs, seasoned tradelines, foreclosures, and repos. As an author, Dr. Credit King is currently writing a book titled “Should There Be A Polygraph Before Marriage.”
HISTORY OF THE POLYGRAPHY TEST A Polygraph is informally known as a lie detector test. The device helps conduct procedures that measure and record multiple psychological indicators, such as pulse rate, blood pressure, skin conductivity, and respiration when a person answers questions. According to Synnott, Dietzel & Ioannou (2015), John A. Larson, a California-based psychologist, and policeman created the first polygraph in 1921 with the intention to simultaneously measure changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration when questioning a suspect. Larson incorporated earlier research by psychologist Vittorio Benussi, an Italian on respiratory symptoms of a lie, and William Marston, an American lawyer, psychologist, and author that noted discontinuous systolic blood pressure that aided in the detection of deception. The application of polygraphs in real-life situations began in 1923 in a United States court. For that matter, Martson had attempted to present the results of the polygraph test as evidence. However, the court rejected the experimental testimony claiming that it can only recognize it if the method applied to present the evidence has a wider use and acceptance in the particular field. In turn, after that case, Frye Standard governed the admissibility of expert testimony in the courts until the end of the Cold War (Synnott, Dietzel & Ioannou, 2015). In some countries, polygraphs aid in many sectors and various situations. For that matter, the tool help during interrogation for criminal suspects and candidates seeking sensitive public or private employment positions. The U.S. Federal government and law enforcement agencies, including the CIA, FBI, DEA, and NSA, among other police departments use polygraph examinations to screen newly hired staff and interrogate suspects.
However, the high costs involved with polygraph assessment and concern by both scientific and government bodies about the accuracy of evidence make the use of polygraph inconclusive. Harris (2018) notes that, on average, a single polygraph examination exceeds $700 in the U.S. Some quarters have also raised concerns that the tool is highly inaccurate, invalid, and imperfect and countermeasures can easily defeat it, making it less effective in assessing truthfulness. Similar reservations by the American Psychological Association and research by the National Academy of Sciences conclude that polygraphs have high inaccuracy and no clear evidence that they can accurately detect lies (American Psychological Association, 2004). However, most recent findings from the latest computerized polygraph testing techniques purport that polygraph has an accuracy rate of 98% but will the application of several key qualities to achieve such a level of accuracy (Lie Detector Test UK, 2023). In essence, the findings emphasize that a polygraph is only as good as the examiner whereby, if someone who uses the equipment is not fully-trained, honest, or ethical, the outcomes of the polygraph and success rate are worse or no better than if questioning did not use the equipment.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF POLYGRAPHS Due to the increased use of polygraphs in formal environments and contexts, the National Center for Credibility Assessment set guidelines and standards to adhere to when carrying out polygraph examinations. For that matter, two predominant types of polygraphs prevail in the U.S. Comparative Question Test (CQT) procedure is preferred over Concealed Information Test (CIT) (Synnott, Dietzel & Ioannou, 2015). While both utilize similar physical apparatus, they differ in theoretical underpinning and utilization in academic and commercial fields. Most federal contractors and employees undergo two types of examinations for security clearance purposes. These include the lifestyle polygraph examination or simply lifestyle polygraph and counterintelligence polygraph examination (CI). Notably, CI is a more common type of examination for screening for security issues related to terrorism, espionage, unauthorized contracts or disclosure of information, sabotage, or the malicious misuse of government resources, such as defense systems. A Lifestyle Polygraph examination focuses more on applicants’ personal issues, private life, and security factors that can predispose them to blackmail and coercion in a foreign country’s context (Berry & Berry PLLC, 2013). Accordingly, CI polygraph questions seek to weigh an individual’s allegiance to the U.S.A while lifestyle polygraph questions seek personal information about a subject’s conduct, their past and present behavior, and a full scope polygraph tends to combine both the CI and Lifestyle polygraphs.
WHY DO COUPLES GET MARRIED From a simplistic viewpoint, couples get married due to the reciprocity of love between them. Marriage is considered as a union that promotes companionship, signifying their lifelong commitment and providing security for their children. However, when marriage is considered a public commitment to each other, it is hard to distinguish the intention of individuals entering into marriage as some may seek to serve their lust, attraction, attachment, or other ulterior motives, such as economic benefits after divorce.
Love is complex to describe. At its basic level, it is usually considered as positive feelings, emotions, and behaviors towards another person. In its expression, it is noted through passion, intimacy, and commitment. However, even in situations where couples may show reciprocity and adopt a give-and-take kind of interaction, it may become complex as some people can show reciprocity without any commitment to someone. In reality, love is complicated and marriage cannot truly ascertain that loves exist between a couple.
While most people understand love as a matter of the heart, the complexities of love have led scientists to establish that it is possible to determine love from the reaction of the brain. For that matter, they can test love by assessing how the brain releases hormones. These include, dopamine, vasopressin, oxytocin, testosterone, and estrogen and create a mix of affections and feelings, including pleasure, euphoria, and the need for bonding and companionship (Earp, Wudarczyk, Sandberg & Savulescu, 2013). From a physical observation, the release of these hormones can reflect through changes in the colors of cheeks, speech, and eyes. Polygraphs can help assess the truth among couples. In essence, it can help measure love and how each is emotionally attached to the other and their intention to establish a long-term bond. Better Help Editorial Team (2023) argues that there is a difference between falling in love and love. The former happens due to a mixture of lust and sexual attraction and often as a sudden and uncontrollable process that leave lovers in a vulnerable state. It is similar to falling ill or in a trap. The Lifestyle Polygraph can apply alongside other physical manifestations of love when examining whether married couples are truly in love. In essence, there is an increase in demand for polygraphs before marriage or reunion. According to Lie Detector (2022), engaged couples seeking polygraph tests have increased demand that one passes the test before the wedding. In other cases, where one person had previously engaged in infidelity, when their relationship gets back on track, doubts prevail and the betrayed partners seek a polygraph test to ensure the full extent of unfaithfulness and any further details that they withhold. While it is hard to trust a cheat, betrayed partners can establish whether there have been further indiscretions and alleviate their suspicion towards their partners or convince the relatives to reunite.
BIBLICAL STATEMENT OF MARRIAGE From a Biblical perspective, marriage is a concept and institution meant to last until the death of one of the partners and in a loving, selfless, and intimate relationship. Firstly, as a relation of love, both husbands’ ought to love their wives, and women to love their husbands (Ephesians 5:25; Titus 2:4). Secondly, marriage is a bond established on intimacy as it involves more than physical closeness. It is considered a spiritual and emotional exercise where a man leaves his parents and cleaves to his wife and they both become one flesh (Genesis 2:24). In turn, the married couple needs to remain unified in every way. Besides, sexual intimacy helps couples express love, unity, and happiness and through it, they multiply and replenish the earth (Genesis 1:28). For that matter, intimacy help procreate and creates a stronger bond with children and a family unit.
Moreover, a marriage is a selfless relationship through sacrifice and foregoing personal desires to serve the partner. It means that each person has to put their partner first and keep a focus on their success which makes the marriage stronger. Lastly, marriage is supposed to last forever. When Pharisees asked Jesus whether it is lawful to divorce a wife for any cause, Jesus replied, except in cases of infidelity, the marriage that was designed from the creation was monogamy and did not include divorce (Matthew 19:6). safe, and permissible ways for other people to behave around them and how they will respond when someone steps outside those limits.” SOUL TIES
A soul tie in its simplest definition involves a connection between two people that is deeply embedded into their souls. Zlotnick (2022) argues that, soul ties often happen after someone had intercourse with another. Other than sexual soul ties, permanent soul ties can occur when two soul merge and both are aware of it or do it on a conscious level. However, the concept of soul tie has gained popularity on TikTok with the young generation who seek experiences outside the limits of organized religion. In this case, a soul tie occurs as an intense spiritual connection between two people leading to a mutual learning experience. Soul ties are characterized by an intense connection or spiritual link between two people who think about each other constantly and cannot get off the mind of the other person and a feeling of strong attachment.
WOMEN WHO EMOTIONALLY ABUSE MEN - INTELLECTUAL TAKEOUT Emotional abuse is well-documented when men perpetrate it on female victims but less known when done on men. Evidently, pop culture, academia, shows, and books have discussed the emotional abuse of women in detail. However, few resources for men exist and fewer stories of men victimized by women resurface in the media. Palmatier & Elam (2015) argues that emotionally abusive women can bully men, set unreasonable expectations, engage in verbal attacks, unpredictable responses, rejection, gaslighting, isolation, constant chaos, withholding affection and sex, and emotional blackmail. One of the notable sites, Shrink4Men.com is committed to men’s mental health and emotional abuse of men. Notably, women are seen to wage war against men. In the current cultural chaos and gridlock, women seem elicited by ideas that introduce them to principles that create unstable unions. Some men undergo psychological pain at the hands of abusive women. Some women have shown a relentless quest to grab the mental strength of men by constant nagging and creating a ripple of emotional torture. The rise of such unusual social misfits where women rest huge emotional and psychological load on men is thought to emanate from past and present triggers. For that matter, women who have experienced disrespect and ill-treatment from other men can have sharp tongues adopt an over-controlling behavior, and embarrass men. Besides, irresponsible and carefree attitudes of men and those that exhibit excessive jealousy, and refuse to accept women as important partners and respect them can threaten the feminist ego (Issah, 2019). Sometimes courageous men tend to report it but most psychological abuse by women goes unreported. Often due to stigma and inability to get the right advice and help to handle women who tend to engage in intellectual takeout, such men tend to face depression, engage in antisocial behaviors, such as binge drinking, or in the worst-case scenario commit suicide (Palmatier & Elam, 2015). Besides, women who subscribe to radical feminism tend to engage in competitive behaviors with a mindset and objectives to re-ordering society by eliminating male supremacy in all social and economic contexts. In turn, they may challenge anything that a man does as unjust and try to restructure the social norms at the expense of the men’s mental well-being.
References American Psychological Association. (2004, August). The Truth About Lie Detectors (aka Polygraph Tests)”. apa.org. https://www.apa.org/topics/cognitive-neuroscience/polygraph Berry & Berry PLLC. (2013, August). polygraph examinations for federal employees and contractors. https://www.berrylegal.com/resources/securityclearance/polygraph-examinations-for-federal-employees-and-contractors/ Better Help Editorial Team. (2023, April). Love Vs. In Love: Which Is Better? https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/relations/love-vs-in-love-which-is-better/ Earp, B. D., Wudarczyk, O. A., Sandberg, A., & Savulescu, J. (2013). If I could just stop loving you: Anti-love biotechnology and the ethics of a chemical breakup. The American Journal of Bioethics, 13(11), 3-17. Harris, M. (2018, October 1). The Lie Generator: Inside the Black Mirror World of Polygraph Job Screenings. Wired. https://www.wired.com/story/inside-polygraph-job-screening-black-mirror/ Issah, H. S. (2019). Inside the mindset of women who abuse men!Africa News. https://www.africanews.com/2019/05/17/inside-the-mindset-of-women-abusers// Lascala, M. (2022, March). Why Do Women Cheat? Relationship Experts Explain the 3 Most Common Reasons. Good Housekeeping. https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/life/relationships/a30459155/why-women-cheat/ Lie Detector Test UK. (2023, March). How Accurate is a Lie Detector Test? iedetectortest.uk/lie-detector-test-accuracy. Lie Detector. (2022). Will you marry me – after you’ve passed a polygraph?https://liedetector.ie/news/will-you-marry-me-after-youve-passed-a-polygraph/ Palmatier, T. J., & Elam, P. (2015). Say goodbye to crazy: How to get rid of his crazy ex and restore sanity to your life. North Charleston, SC: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform. Synnott, J., Dietzel, D., & Ioannou, M. (2015). A review of the polygraph: history, methodology and current status. Crime Psychology Review, 1(1), 59-83. Zlotnick, S. (2022). What Is a Soul Tie?Bride. https://www. brides.com/soul-tie-explained- “In reality, love is complicated and marriage cannot truly ascertain that loves exist between a couple.” -CHAYO BRIGGS